Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental. Sexy Trippy All Moods. Drinking Hanging Out In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. But there are new twists: in the middle of the piece Bach presents the subject in an unusual sequential order rather than tonic-dominant pairs before returning to the tonic for the close, where the theme sounds out several times against syncopated counterpoint.
The four simple fugues lead to a group of three counter fugues. Bach alters the principal subject through the use of dotted rhythms and employs the device of stretto overlapping entries throughout, at distances ranging from one measure to three measures. In addition, the principal subject appears in upright, inverted, and counter forms. The movement ends with a climactic coda in which the texture expands to six parts at the close. The principal subject appears in diminution, or shorter note values, and in strettos that often combine the normal and diminished forms.
In all four the principal subject is combined with new themes, introduced through separate expositions. The second half begins with the appearance of the principal subject of the work in an inverted and syncopated form.
It opens with a new subject marked by an octave leap and instrumental running notes. The two subjects appear in various combinations that lead to an emphatic conclusion. It is followed by the exposition of the main subject, inverted and with dotted rhythms. The two themes are then combined in various ways. Two other themes are introduced and gradually combined with the principal subject. At the peak of the fugue, the altered principal subject appears against itself, in upright and inverted forms.
After the double and triple fugues come two mirror fugues, in which the themes and parts are inverted in mirror fashion. It features the principal subject and its inversion in a leaping, running, gigue-like form. It is thought to have been originally composed in Weimar and reworked for the collection of organ sonatas. The style is exemplified in the "embellished" slow movements of Corelli's violin sonatas Op. Williams gives a broad musical description of the Largo as a movement with two voices in dialogue over a continuo bass combining aspects of three different musical forms: fugue , ritornello and da capo aria.
Together these create a mood or affekt tinged with melancholy. In the opening bars the first fugal subject and counter-subject are heard in the manuals over the continuo bass. The elegiac passage with the lyrical subject and counter-subject in counterpoint is heard several times, scarcely altered, during the movement.
It is instantly recognizable each time it returns and plays the role of a ritornello. The second subject starts at bar 13 and illustrates the other groups of musical figures that Bach employs in the movement. The da capo aspects of the movement are manifested in the first and last sections in A minor, which frame the middle section, comprising bars 13—40, that starts with new musical material in the relative major key of C major.
In the movement the seven bar fugal melody segment bars 1—7, 21—27, 41—47 that forms the ritornello is never divided up, in contrast to the intervening bars which are developed from demisemiquaver figures spun out into long phrases which are freely permuted. The long demisemiquaver phrases are themselves developed from distinct "motif-cells" of four demisemiquavers—these can be seen in the last quaver of bar 4, the first quaver of bar 13 and the last quaver of bar None of these occur in the ritornello segment and are examples of what Walther termed "varied figures" in his theoretical treatise Praecepta der musicalischen Composition.
Examples of freely developed material occur already in bar 8 and later in bar 48 , which serves as a linking passage: the diminished fifths there are similar to those Bach used later in the opening Fantasia of the third keyboard partita in A minor, BWV Thus the lyrical thematic material of the ritornello melody is kept distinct from that of the freely developed demisemiquaver episodes it frames. The fugal last movement of BWV —in contrast to the more forward-looking first movement—follows established patterns.
The opening theme—the first subject—is similar to that of the earlier Allegro in the Violin Sonata No. In BWV the pedal also participates as a third voice in the fugue: the quaver chief motif of the first fugue subject the first six notes fits well with the pedal; and later on in the second subject the semiquavers in the manuals are also taken up in the pedal part.
Williams discusses the "ingenious" structure of the movement which he describes as "bright, extrovert, tuneful, restless, intricate": there is "inventive" semiquaver passagework in the manuals matched by "instructive" or challenging footwork in the pedal. The structure can be seen on two levels. On the one hand there is the broad binary structure of a dance-form: the first part comprising bars 1—73 with the first and second subject followed by a short coda in the dominant key of G major; then the second part, bars 73—, in which the reprise of the first subject has the form of a development section, followed by the second subject and the coda in the tonic key of C major.
On the other hand, there is a more detailed division into sections: . The development section bars 73— is formed of four parts. In the first tersely scored part, bars 73—89, the first subject is heard modulating through different minor keys with an almost constant stream of semiquavers running through the three parts. Although the chief motif in the fugue subject is unaltered, the semiquaver counter-subject is freely modified.
The fugue subject is heard first in the upper keyboard, then in the lower keyboard, and finally in the pedal in bar Without a break in bar 81 the pedal repeats the chief motif off the beat, followed by entries in the upper manual and then lower manual.
The latter is accompanied by an angular version of the semiquaver counter-subject in the pedal which leads on to a further statement of the head motif. In bars 89—97 the first fugue subject and modified counter-subject are heard in the two upper voices in the key of D minor.
In bars 97—, there is another episode with the pedal playing three statements of the chief motif below semiquavers in the upper parts which culminate in six bars of imitative broken chords :.
These lead seamlessly into the fourth part, bars —, a 7 bar reprise of the first fugue subject starting in the last three bars above in the subdominant key of F major, -which concludes the development section.
As Williams comments, the movement's "lively continuity is aided throughout by the tied notes and suspensions typical of the first subject [ I am making a collection of Bach fugues, not only of Sebastian but also of Emanuel and Friedemann.
Then also those of Handel Have you also heard that the English Bach has died? What a shame for the musical world! In the eighteenth century in Germany, the organ sonatas were transmitted through hand copies made by Bach's pupils and circle, although no copies of the complete collection survive from students such as Johann Peter Kellner , Johann Friedrich Agricola , and Johann Christian Kittel. A copy made by Kittel of part of the autograph manuscript survives; and Johann Ludwig Krebs and Johann Gottfried Walther made copies of individual movements that might predate the manuscript.
In handwritten copies of three movements of the sonatas were also available from the Leipzig publisher Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf , who also produced librettos of Bach's cantatas during his lifetime. Later in the eighteenth century publishers could supply hand copies of the entire collection: in the Viennese publisher Johann Traeg advertised the collection on their lists.
After Bach's death the organ sonatas entered the standard repertoire of German organists, although more as a benchmark for the mastery of technique than for public performance. The organ sonatas were also disseminated amongst musical amateurs in more accessible arrangements as chamber works or Hausmusik for private performance in the home: an arrangement for two harpsichords, with each player taking an upper part and the bass line, was probably first copied by Wilhelm Friedemann Bach or Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and might have originated from domestic music-making in the Bach household.
The first printed score for organ only appeared in the early nineteenth century and was also derived from the autograph manuscript. A year later he set up a music shop and in a publishing house.
Corresponding with Breitkopf and the widow of C. Bach, he was able to acquire Bach manuscripts, including that of the Mass in B minor , which he eventually published. A fugue usually has an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation returning to the subject in the tonic key. The two usually go together. In other words, you have two or more independent lines interweaving, comprising a unified whole. Then you get an inverted fugue, where Herr Bach turns the score upside down and continues playing it.
But not necessarily in the same voice—he can move it up a third, or a fourth, or an eleventh, whatever he feels like on that fine Leipzig morning. And that just takes us halfway through the work, which comprises fourteen fugues and four canons. Each of the fugues uses this theme as its basis:.Born in Eisenach, Germany and began his life as a Church Organist then, Court Organist and later Concertmaster of the Court Orchestra in Weimarc? Johann Sebastian Bach Which composer married twice and had 20 children where 9 survived and 4 became well known musicians?